Best Full Spectrum CBD Oil
Con Amore from our family to yours with care and attention from start to finish, all our Green Queen Full Spectrum CBD Oil is bottled in Italy using fresh Italian ingredients and made with hemp that is picked and trimmed by hand with care and passion.
At the Green Queen, we believe quality is the essence, which is why all our flavors in our Full Spectrum CBD Oil is made using fresh ingredients that are grown alongside top-quality hemp that is nurtured from seeds.
The Green Queen farm is based in the idyllic South of Italy on volcanic soil which is packed with all the best nutrients making it some of the best growing conditions in Italy.
Find out more in the video below
Our hemp and Full Spectrum CBD Oil
Many companies that produce Full Spectrum CBD Oil, use hemp sourced from China or buy hemp that has been discarded by the hemp fiber production lines, which means it cannot be guaranteed to be of the best quality and free from contamination.
We at The Green Queen, believe that healthy growing conditions breed healthy plants, so our hemp is sewn from seeds and nurtured until fully grown on the Green Queen Family Farm down the road from where the lemons, hazelnuts, and strawberries are also cultivated.
All our Full Spectrum CBD Oils are GMP certified, 100% naturally grown so free of pesticides, chemicals, or toxins, and are all 100% vegan and organic
What does GMP certified mean and why is it important for Full Spectrum CBD Oil?
When you see GMP, short for Good Manufacturing Process, it means that manufacturers and companies have operating within the highest possible manufacturing standards.
Companies that are GMP certified are expected to have the correct equipment that is maintained at the highest level, consistency of products within batches, and quality assurance as well as many other guidelines.
GMP exists so that consumers know that the product is safe and effective in what it says it can do. It is a process of vetting companies and their products, so you don’t have to.
GMP is especially important in the CBD market as it is an industry that is still relatively new and is not heavily regulated yet. This gives companies and manufacturers of CBD products a great deal of autonomy without any real regulation.
Full Spectrum CBD Oil - Lab Testing
At the Green Queen, we undergo stringent 3 stage lab testing both in Italy and in the UK to ensure that the Full Spectrum CBD Oil we are producing is only of the best quality.
All our lab tests are available on the product page so you can verify for yourself and ensure you are buying the best Full Spectrum CBD Oil you can.
Guide to Full Spectrum CBD Oil UK
- What is CBD?
- CBD vs THC: What is the difference?
- How does CBD work?
- What is Full Spectrum CBD oil?
- What is the content of Full Spectrum CBD oil?
- How is Full Spectrum CBD oil made?
- Is Full Spectrum CBD oil legal in the UK?
- Is Full spectrum CBD oil safe UK?
- Can I get addicted to Full Spectrum CBD oil?
- Can I travel abroad with Full spectrum CBD Oil UK?
- CBD OIl side effects
- Will Full Spectrum CBD oil show up on a drug test?
- How do I store my Full Spectrum CBD oil?
- How to use CBD oil?
What is CBD?
CBD, otherwise known as cannabidiol, is one of the approximately 120 different phytocannabinoid compounds in the cannabis plant that have been identified. CBD comes from hemp which is a strain of the cannabis plant that has less than 0.2% of THC in it.
CBD is a non-hallucinogenic cannabinoid that has does not make the user feel intoxicated or ‘high’ which means it has no psychoactive effects.
CBD is found in all cannabis plants, however, in hemp plants, the concentration of CBD is higher than in marijuana plants so most CBD products will be derived from hemp plants rather than marijuana plants.
CBD is a fairly new discovery as its compound structure was only identified in 1940 and it was first extracted in 1942. Consequently, as CBD is still relatively new, research into its benefits is still ongoing as researchers start to understand this compound in more depth.
CBD vs THC: What is the difference?
Before explaining the differences, let's explain what THC is. THC is one of the compounds in the cannabis plant alongside CBD but is well known as the compound to make the individuals who use it become lethargic and euphoric or in simpler terms, ‘high’.
There are numerous differences between CBD and THC. Although the two phytocannabinoids are found in all cannabis plants, CBD is more commonly extracted from hemp plants as there is a greater concentration of CBD, but trace amounts of THC.
Hemp, by UK law, can only be classified as hemp if it contains less than 0.2% of THC.
This means a hemp plant does not contain enough THC to have any psychoactive effects. The marijuana plant, however, is the opposite; it has a greater concentration of THC, usually between 25-30%, but has a lower concentration of CBD.
CBD And Endocannabinoid System
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a system within the body that works comparably to any other system we have, such as the digestive or immune system; cells and molecules bond together to send messages to other cells in the body.
The ECS is responsible for carrying out several important physiological functions such as pain modulation, anti-inflammatory responses, memory, and appetite.
Through research into the ECS, the understanding is that is responsible for achieving homeostasis, or the general stability of your body’s environment.
There are two different cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are mainly found in the brain and central nervous system and CB2 receptors are mainly found on immune cells, or white blood cells, which are circulated throughout your body via the bloodstream.
- CB1 receptors
- receptors mainly interact with the THC compound, and the CB2 receptors mostly interact with the CBD compound.
- CB2 receptors
- are also located on the spleen, tonsils, and some liver and bone cells too.
Cannabinoids, which are found in the cannabis plant, are chemical compounds that connect with the cannabinoid receptors.
There are two types of cannabinoid compounds relevant here:
- Cannabinoids are produced by mammals.
- Cannabinoids that are produced by plants, including the cannabis plant which has over 120 naturally occurring cannabinoids which are both psychoactive and non-psychoactive compounds.
As we already have cannabinoid receptors throughout the whole of our body, any external dose of phytocannabinoids, whether that is THC or CBD, interacts with the cannabinoid receptors present in our brain and central nervous system to enhance the functioning of our ECS system due to higher levels of cannabinoids.
These higher levels of cannabinoids are important as research shows that an endocannabinoid deficiency in the body could be a leading cause of many physical and mental health issues, so taking an external dose of cannabinoids, such as CBD could help sustain the required quantity of endocannabinoids in our body that can have return our body to general homeostasis.
Full Spectrum Cbd Oil and The Entourage Effect
The three different types of CBD oils are relevant, not only so customers are aware of what they are buying, but also due to what is known as the entourage effect. As research into cannabinoids increases, a relatively new theory has emerged known as the entourage effect.
The validity of the entourage effect varies, as not all studies have found evidence to support it, but there are also many studies that have found a connection.
The entourage effect is very simply the theory that all the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids within the cannabis plant work more effectively when taken together.
This means that, in theory, taking CBD on its own (CBD isolate) is less effective than taking Broad-spectrum or Full Spectrum CBD Oil as the other naturally occurring terpenes, flavonoids and other cannabinoids have been removed.
There is also evidence to suggest that CBD and THC are more effective when taken together as even the trace amounts of THC that are present in CBD oils is enough to increase the benefits of CBD in the body, compared to CBD oil with no THC present.
If the entourage theory is valid, it would mean that Full Spectrum oil is more beneficial than Broad Spectrum oil as the THC compound is still present, even in trace amounts.
What is Full Spectrum CBD oil?
Full Spectrum CBD oil is one of three terms that are used to describe CBD oils and they all refer to the different compounds that are in the oil.
It is important to note that as well as THC and CBD, there other approximately 120 compounds left include healthy compounds, such as
- Omega 3, Omega 6 fatty, amino acids
The three terms are full-spectrum oil, broad-spectrum oil, and CBD isolates. These all refer to how much of these other natural compounds are left in the oil.
Full Spectrum CBD Oil
contains all the naturally occurring, beneficial compounds that the cannabis plant offers, including trace amounts of THC.
Broad Spectrum CBD Oil
also contains the naturally occurring, beneficial compounds that the cannabis plant offers, except for THC. In broad-spectrum oil, all trace of the THC compound has been extracted.
the last term that contains only the compound CBD and does not include any other naturally occurring compounds.
Is Full Spectrum CBD Oil legal in the Uk?
Yes. Full Spectrum CBD Oil is legal in the UK if it contains less than 1mg THC per container and less than 0.3% in The United States.
What is the content of Full Spectrum CBD oil?
Full-spectrum CBD oil contains many naturally occurring cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids; and finally, the carrier oil of choice, MCT. Here is a full break down of what is most likely to be in your Full Spectrum CBD oil:
MCTs, short for medium-chain triglycerides, which is saturated fat, are found only in breastmilk, full-fat cow and goat milk, coconut oil, and palm oil. MCT oil is produced by extracting the MCTs, in coconut and palm oil.
Although the MCT oil is actually man-made, it still contains healthy medium-chain triglycerides and is very good for the body and mind.
There are plenty of known benefits to MCT oil, such as increasing memory and brain function and lower blood sugar levels and cholesterol. This makes it a brilliant oil to mix with CBD as the two oils work together to enhance the functioning of your body.
Cannabinoids naturally present in plants, including cannabis, are known as phytocannabinoids. They can have psychoactive effects, or simply just therapeutic effects. Cannabinoids are present in plants and animals and interact with our endocannabinoid system.
Research into the cannabis plants is mainly focused on the two main compounds THC and CBD, but many other compounds are present.
The cannabinoids are thought to have their properties enhanced by the presence of the flavonoids and terpenes that are also present in the plant.
Here is a break-down of some main compounds present in cannabis:
THC is arguably the most well-known cannabinoid due to its psychoactive properties. Marijuana containing THC is smoked or ingested and the THC latches to the cannabinoid receptors in the body and causes effects such as increased appetite, lack of coordination, and perceived enhancement of senses. Overuse of THC can potentially cause paranoia, cause memory loss, and anxiety.
THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid)
THCA is the main compound in cannabis, it is the unheated, non-psychoactive version of THC (the chemical precursor.) When THCA is burned, heated, or vaped to a certain temperature, the THCA turns to THC, and then it becomes psychoactive. THCA is known to be antiproliferative (meaning to suppress malignant cell growth) and antispasmodic (known to suppress muscle spasms).
CBD has recently become another well-known cannabinoid, despite its true potential still being relatively unknown, it is increasingly becoming more popular as a natural medicinal option.
The FDA, which is the United States Federal Food and Drug Administration, has officially approved the use of CBD to help with epilepsy and as more research is being conducted, more and more benefits are being revealed.
CBD has no psychoactive properties and will not give you the feeling of being ‘high’.
CBDA (cannabidiolic acid)
Just as THCA is the unheated version of THC, CBDA is the unheated version of CBD. Through the process of decarboxylation, the CBDA turns into CBD.
CBDA, unlike CBD, is not considered pharmacologically active, meaning it is not the compound in a drug that is considered effective.
CBN is a compound that is mildly psychoactive. In a new, fresh marijuana plant, there is very little CBN to be found. This is because, in older marijuana plants, the THC over time gets converted into CBN that has more sedative effects.
CBG is a non-psychoactive compound that has also been known to inhibit malignant cell growth, however, there is very little research done on CBG. CBG would also have to go through the process of decarboxylation to utilize the activated cannabinoid.
CBC is also a non-psychoactive compound that when combined with CBD and THC is known to have anti-depressant qualities. CBC binds with the cannabinoid receptors throughout the body and aids in the pain-fighting medicinal effects of cannabis.
Terpenes contain only the elements of hydrogen and carbon. They are found naturally in the cannabis plant and they are the plant's natural defense against bacteria, funguses, insects, and other environmental stresses. They are also responsible for the natural flavor and fragrance of cannabis plants.
Different strains of cannabis plants have different variances of terpenes and often, the type of terpenes that are present will dictate certain effects of the smoked or ingested cannabis. Terpenes are present in many other plants and insects.
The terpenes in the cannabis plant are thought to have a synergy with the other cannabinoids and flavonoids to enhance the benefits of the cannabis plant.
Read more about Terpenes
Myrcene is the terpene most frequently produced by the cannabis plant. It creates a smell to the cannabis that is earthy or musky and is also found in the oil from eucalyptus plants, citrus fruits, and bay leaves as well as many others. Myrcene is found in many Indica strains of cannabis that cause the sedative and drowsy effect. Aside from causing drowsy effects in cannabis, which can act as a prohibitor to insomnia, it has also some other medical abilities such as preventing gastric ulcers.
Pinene is a terpene that is present in conifers and certain citrus fruits. Pinene has had research conducted that has shown it to have anti-inflammatory properties and acts as a bronchodilator, meaning it helps to open the airways when they start to constrict which happens =s with conditions such as asthma and anxiety.
Aroma: citrus and fruity
Strains of cannabis that have high levels of limonene will result in an elated mood and attitude. Limonene is also found in high quantities in the rinds of citrus fruits, in rosemary, and juniper. There is a documented history of its medical use as it has been used to cure fungal infections and has also undergone testing following properties that can stop the growth of malignant cancer cells.
Aroma: floral, lavender
When Linalool is present in a cannabis strain it produces calming and relaxing effects on the user which has meant it has a long-standing history for a sleep aid. Linalool diminishes the effects of THC which can be an effective repellent against the anxiety and paranoia effects that THC can have. It is used as a natural pesticide and is present in numerous cosmetic and bath products to aid in relaxation and calmness. Linalool is found naturally in a huge number of plants and herbs, such as mint, cinnamon, rosewood, and many more.
Caryophyllene is found in a variety of plants, such as cinnamon leaves, black pepper, and chewing gum. It is the only terpene that interacts directly with the endocannabinoid system and acts like a cannabinoid, which has given it high potential as cancer and chronic pain treatment. There are studies that have found it to effectively reduce lung inflammation due to prolonged tobacco use. It has high anti-inflammatory properties that make it a very powerful terpene.
Prominent in strains of cannabis that have high pinene levels. Causes calm and relaxing effects to those who smoke or ingest it, as well as pain-relieving properties. It is a primary terpene in cannabis and so is present quite commonly in cannabis strains.
Aroma: wet woods
Camphene is found in a multitude of essential oils such as nutmeg and rosemary. It is also used frequently in perfumes but also has the potential to reduce cholesterol and aid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It is found in very small amounts in the cannabis plant.
Aroma: pine with floral, herbal undertones
Terpinolene is wildly used in soap and perfumes but also makes a good insect repellent. It is found naturally in sage and rosemary and has properties to help with sleep problems as it has sedative properties.
Aroma: mint and citrus
Phellandrene is commonly found in eucalyptus and has been used in eastern medicine for centuries due to its antifungal, antibacterial properties and more recently for anti-cancer properties, but phellandrene is only present in trace amounts in cannabis unfortunately as it a secondary terpene.
Aroma: sweet and pungent
Carene is found commonly in essential oils, one of which is juniper berry oil. It can also be used to remove the body of excess body fluids such as sweat, mucus, or tears. It can be the cause of coughing and eye irritability when smoked in cannabis but strains with carene in are more beneficial to those with arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease.
Humulene is used most in the brewing process and is responsible for giving the beer that ‘hoppy’ aroma. It has properties that are anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor. It is also used to reduce appetite. Found in most strains of cannabis but in very moderate levels.
Pulegone is found in large quantities in rosemary and could bring down fevers and has highly recognized sedative effects. It is also an effective insect repellent. Found in low quantities in cannabis, as a secondary terpene.
Aroma: scented roses
Found commonly in bath products and is an effective mosquito repellent. Not present in all cannabis strains but provides a sweetness to the taste when present.
Flavonoids are present in many plants, vegetables, and flowers and are mainly responsible, similarly to terpenes to act as their defense against disease and insects. In cannabis, flavonoids are in part, responsible for the different hues and colors in our cannabis strain and are partly responsible for giving many other plants and flowers their distinctive colors and aromas. In the cannabis plant, it is estimated that flavonoids result in up to 2.5% of the cannabis’ leaves and flowers are thought to have a synergy with cannabinoids.
Cannflavins A, B and C
Cannflavins A-C is unique to the cannabis plant. Cannaflavins A and B were discovered in 1980, but cannflavin C was not discovered until 2013. These three flavonoids are all being researched for their medical potential to be an extremely powerful anti-inflammatory. Cultivators are beginning to grow hemp that has higher concentrations of these cannflavins within the plant so that the potential for high anti-inflammatory properties can be utilized.
Vitexin and Isovitexin
Unlike cannflavins A, B, and C, vitexin, and Isovitexin is not unique to the cannabis plant. It is found in a multitude of other plants, such as bamboo leaves, hawthorn, and passion flowers. Hawthorn has been used throughout Europe since the late 19th century for its medicinal properties. It was used to increase circulatory benefits and increase the efficiency of the heart due thought to be a result of the vitexin present.
Apigenin is another extremely beneficial flavonoid that is found in many plants and herbs, including chamomile, oregano, and celery as well as many others. Apigenin has been hailed for its ability to reduce the side effects of an immunosuppressant (ciclosporin A) that is given during organ transplants to stop the body from rejecting the new organ. Apigenin also has properties to reduce anxiety, a property also documented in many cannabinoids.
Kaempferol is found in teas, kale, broccoli, and many other fruits and vegetables. It is known for its anti-cancer properties and the ability to preserve healthy cells; it is being heavily researched as a natural cancer-fighting drug.
It can be found in tomatoes, broccoli, onions and in a large proportion of other fruits and vegetables, Quercetin is known to have anti-viral effects as well as acting as an effective anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular aid.
Luteolin and Orientin
Along with the other flavonoid, these two also have known anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects and also believed to have a synergy with the many other cannabinoids and terpenes in the cannabis plant.
How is Full Spectrum CBD oil made?
The first stage of producing CBD oil is to grow or source some hemp. Where the hemp plants are grown and harvested is critically important to get high-quality CBD oil; if the plants are grown on toxic soil or in an area where pesticides are used, through the process of bioaccumulation the toxins in the soil will be absorbed into the plant and those toxins will be present in the CBD oil too.
As the CBD industry is currently not fully regulated, the recommended hemp would be organic, hand-picked hemp that is preferable, GMP certified.
Once you have your organic hemp it has been cured and dried. After that, the next step is to heat the flower. Take THC and CBD, the more well-known compounds of cannabis, these compounds are only activated when they are heated which is why marijuana is smoked so that compounds can be heated and the sensation of being ‘high’ can be felt. This process of heating the flower is known as decarboxylation.
How the CBD is extracted can range and there are many alternatives used, some of which are not advisable or safe. A safe and common process to extract CBD is by the method of supercritical carbon dioxide. This term might sound unfamiliar, but it is a very old and well-used method of extraction that is very prevalently used in our food industry. When being used for CBD extraction, it can however create a bitter aftertaste that is less pleasant for those taking it.
Another process is through ethanol extraction which is a safe process that is also commonly used in the food and drink industry. Ethanol is usually corn-based, but there is an environmentally friendly, sugarcane alternative that can be used instead that is organic. Ethanol extraction is often considered the best method to extract CBD and does not bring a harsh taste to the oil.
On occasions, butane has been used by some companies to extract CBD, however, this is never recommended as butane should never be ingested and is commonly used as a lighter fluid!
The last few steps are to distill the extracted CBD and then mix it with a suitable carrier oil so that it can be more readily absorbed by the body. There are again, several different carrier oils that can be used, and once again, some that are more highly recommended than others.
Olive oil or hempseed oil has been used on occasion as carrier oils, but they are broken down slowly by the body so do not allow for quick effects from taking CBD. The most recommended oil, and certainly the most efficient is MCT oil. MCT oil acts as a carrier for the CBD taking it more quickly into the bloodstream so that the effects are felt more quickly.
Is Full Spectrum CBD Oil safe?
In short, yes CBD is safe. However, there is, unfortunately, a lack of regulation still in the CBD market. This means that some disreputable companies can source hemp grown on toxic soil, sprayed with toxic chemicals with no repercussions.
It is imperative to look for lab tests and organic, GMP-approved hemp that ensure that there is regulation, transparency, and good practice throughout.
Can I get addicted to Full Spectrum CBD Oil?
No; CBD, according to the World Health Organization has no indication that it can cause dependency or addiction.
Can I travel abroad with Full Spectrum CBD Oil?
As of 2021, you can usually fly with Full Spectrum CBD Oil in Europe, United States and Canada. However, always check before you fly to ensure you are abiding by the law of the country you are entering.
Are there any side effects of taking Full Spectrum CBD Oil?
Full Spectrum CBD Oil is usually taken with little to no side effects for most people, however, there are always exceptions. CBD has been known on occasion to cause drowsiness and fatigue and can interact with another pharmaceutical drug, such a blood thinners.
If you are taking any other medication, it is always advised to consult your GP before taking CBD oil.
Will Full Spectrum CBD Oil show up on a drug test?
Usually, drug tests only looking for the psycho-active compound (THC) that is present in cannabis. CBD on its own will not show up on a drug test for illegal drugs as it is a legal compound.
With full-spectrum CBD oil, there are trace amounts of THC so regular, prolonged use would result in small amounts of THC being in your system that would be picked up on a drug test.
How do I store my Full Spectrum CBD Oil?
It is best to keep your Full Spectrum CBD Oil away from direct sunlight and at room temperature as putting Full Spectrum CBD Oil in the fridge can make it too cold and cause it to thicken.
Once you buy your Full Spectrum CBD Oil you can keep it for a maximum of 2 years as after 2 years your CBD can start to lose its potency.